Bibliography - Peer Teaching by K-12 Students

Following is a selected bibliography of reports of research involving peer teaching in K-12 schools. To suggest additional items or to ask about this list, contact us.

Compiled by Laurel Puchner, PhD, Research Consultant (2003). Updated by Kira Hamann and Anni Krummel, Research Consultants, in December 2011.

Click here to download our Annotated Bibliography [PDF] to 2003. For an updated annotated bibliography 2003-2011, click here.

Alfassi, M., Weiss, I., & Lifshitz, H. (2009). The efficacy of reciprocal teaching in fostering the reading literacy of students with intellectual disabilities. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(3), 291-305.

Algozinne, B., Marr, M. B., Klavel, R. L., & Dugan, K. K. (2009). Using peer coaches to build oral reading fluency. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 14(3), 256-270.

Arreaga-Mayer, C. (1998). Increasing active student responding and improving academic performance through classwide peer tutoring. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(2), 89-94.

Bar-Eli, N., Bar-Eli, M., Tenenbaum, G., & Forlin, C. (1998). The tutoring process and its manifestation in the classroom behaviour of tutors and tutees. British Educational Research Journal, 24(3), 283-300.

Barron, A.-M., & Foot, H. (1991). Peer tutoring and tutor training. Educational Research, 33(3), 174-185.

Bentz, J. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1996). Improving peers' helping behavior to students with learning disabilities during mathematics peer tutoring. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 19, 202-215.

Bicais, J. & Correia, M. G. (2008, June). Peer-learning spaces: A staple in English language learners' tool kit for developing language and literacy. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22(4), 363-375.

Blake, C., Wang, W., Cartledge, G., & Gardner, R. (2000). Middle school students with serious emotional disturbances serve as social skills trainers and reinforcers for peers with SED. Behavioral Disorders, 25(4), 280-298.

Bowman-Perrott, L. J., Greenwood, C. R., & Tapia, Y. (2007). The efficacy of CWPT used in secondary alternative school classrooms with small teacher/pupil ratios and students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(3), 65–87.

Brand, E. (2003). Children's beliefs about learning: Structures and strategies. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 157, 9-17.

Butler, F., M. (1999). Reading partners: Students can help each other learn to read. Education and Treatment of Children, 22(4), 415-426.

Calhoon, M. B. (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(5), 424–433.

Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2006). Promoting access to general curriculum using peer tutoring support strategies. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 284–292.

Chan, C. K. K., Burtis, P. J., Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1992). Constructive activity in learning from text. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 97-118.

Chan, D. W. (2000). Developing the creative leadership training program for gifted and talented students in Hong Kong. Roeper Review, 22(2), 94-97.

Chinn, C. A., O'Donnell, A. M., & Jinks, T. S. (2000). The structure of discourse in collaborative learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 69(1), 77-97.

Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64(1), 1-35.

Cohen, J. (1986). Theoretical considerations of peer tutoring. Psychology in the Schools, 23(2), 175-186.

Cohen, P., Kulik, J. & Kulik, C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 237-248.

Colangelo, N., & Davis, G. A. (1997). Introduction and Overview. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (pp. 3-9). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Davenport, P., & Howe, C. (1999). Conceptual gain and successful problem-solving in primary school mathematics. Educational Studies, 25(1), 55-78.

Dori, Y. J., & Herscovitz, O. (1999). Question-posing capability as an alternative evaluation method: Analysis of an environmental case study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(4), 411-430.

Dufrene, B.A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring implementation of reciprocal peer tutoring: Identifying and intervening with students who do not maintain accurate implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.

DuPaul, G. J., Ervin, R. A., & Hook, C. L. (1998). Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effects on classroom behavior and academic performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(4), 579-592.

Elbaum, B. E., Vaughn, S., & Hughes, M. T. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65(3), 399-415.

Ezell, H. K., Hunsicker, S. A., & Quinque, M. M. (1997). Comparison of two strategies for teaching reading comprehension skills. Education and Treatment of Children, 20(4), 365-382.

Fantuzzo, J. W., King, J. A., & Heller, L. R. (1992). Effects of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring on Mathematics and School Adjustment: A component analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 331-339.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., & Grayson, N. (1990). An evaluation of reciprocal peer tutoring across elementary school settings. The Journal of School Psychology, 28, 309-323.

Franca, V. M., Kerr, M. M., Reitz, A. L., & Lambert, D. (1990). Peer tutoring among behaviorally disordered students: Academic and social benefits to tutor and tutee. Education and Treatment of Children, 13(2), 109-128.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., & Simmons, D. C. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 174-206.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Thompson, A. (2001). Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading: Extensions for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 15-21.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Yen, L. (2001). Developing first-grade reading fluency through peer mediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(2), 90-93.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Bentz, J., Phillips, N. B., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). The nature of student interactions during peer tutoring with and without training and experience. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 75-103.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing Students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. The Elementary School Journal, 97(3).

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C. L., Dutka, S., & Katzaroff, M. (1996). The relation between student ability and the quality and effectiveness of explanations. American Educational Research Journal, 33(3), 631-664.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., & Allen, S. (1999). Effects of Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading with and without training in elaborated help giving. The Elementary School Journal, 99(3), 201-219.

Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Promoting word recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension in young children. The Journal of Special Education, 39(1), 34-44.

Giesecke, D., & Cartledge, G. (1993). Low-achieving students as successful cross-age tutors. Preventing School Failure, 37(3), 34-43.

Gillies, R. M. (2002). The residual effects of cooperative-learning experiences: A two-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Research, 96(1), 15-20.

Gillies, R. M., & A. F. Ashman. (1998). Behavior and interactions of children in cooperative groups in lower and middle elementary grades. J. of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 746-757.

Gillies, R. M., & Ashman, A. F. (2000). The effects of cooperative learning on students with learning difficulties in the lower elementary school. The Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 19-27.

Ginsburg-Block, M. D., Rohrbeck, C. A, & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2006). A meta-analytic review of social, self-concept, and behavioral outcomes of peer-assisted learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(4), 732–749.

Goodlad, S., & Hirst, B. (Eds.). (1990). Explorations in peer tutoring. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, Ltd.

Grant, T., Murphy, A., Stafford, B., & Childers, P. B. (1997). Peer tutors and students work with formative assessment. Clearing House, 71(2), 103-105.

Greenwood, C. R., Arreaga-Mayer, C., & Utley, C. A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system: Applications with elementary-level English language learners. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1).

Greenwood, C. R., Terry, B., Arreaga-Mayer, C., & Finney, R. (1992). The Classwide Peer Tutoring Program: Implementation factors moderating students' achievement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1).

Greenwood, C. R., Terry, B., Utley, C. A., Montagna, D., & Walker, D. (1993). Achievement, placement and services: Middle school benefits of classwide peer tutoring used at the elementary level. School Psychology Review, 22(3), 497-516.

Gumpel, T. P., & Frank, R. (1999). An expansion of the peer-tutoring paradigm: cross-age peer tutoring of social skills among socially rejected boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 115-118.

Hacker, D. J. & Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 699-718.

Hansen, I. (1992). Should we use bright children as untrained, unpaid teacher aides? Childhood Education, 308-309.

Harper, G. F., Maheady, L., & Mallette, B. (1999). Peer tutoring and the minority child with disabilities. Preventing School Failure, 43(2), 45-51.

Harper, G. F. & Maheady, L. (2007). Peer-mediated teaching and students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(2), 101–107.

Hernandez Garduno, E. L. (2001). The influence of cooperative problem solving on gender differences in achievement, self-efficacy, and attitudes toward mathematics in gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45(4), 268-282.

Heron, T. E., Villarreal, D. M., Yao, M., Christianson, R. J., & Heron, K. M. (2006, January-March). Peer tutoring systems: Applications in classroom and specialized environments. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 27-45.

Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Kirkus, V. V., & Miller, N. (1992). Implications of current research on cooperative interaction for classroom application. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz & N. Miller (Eds.), Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hughes, T. A., & Fredrick, L. D. (2006). Teaching vocabulary with students with learning disabilities using class wide peer tutoring and constant time delay. Journal of Behavioral Education, 15(1), 1–23.

Jacobson, J., Thrope, L., & Fisher, D. (2001). Cross-age tutoring: A literacy improvement approach for struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44(6), 528-536.

Johnson-Prynn, J. S., & V. S. Nisbet. (2002). Preschoolers effectively tutor novice classmates in a block construction task. Child Study Journal 32(4): 241-255.

Kamps, D. M., Kravitz, T., & Lopez, A. G. (1998). What do the peers think? Social validity of peer-mediated programs. Education and Treatment of Children, 21(2), 107-134.

Karnes, F. A., & Stephens, K., R. (1999). Planning for the future: leadership education in the schools. Educational Horizons, 77(2), 89-94.

Kennedy, M. (1990). Controlled evaluation of the effects of peer tutoring on the tutors: Are the 'learning by teaching' theories viable? In S. Goodlad & B. Hirst (Eds.), Explorations in Peer Tutoring (pp. 58-72). Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, Ltd.

King, A. (1994). Guiding knowledge construction in the classroom: Effects of teaching children how to question and how to explain. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 338-368.

King, A., & Rosenshine, B. (1993). Effects of guided cooperative questioning on children's knowledge construction. Journal of Experimental Education, 61, 127-148.

King, A., Staffieri, A., & Adelgais, A. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 134-152.

King, C. M., & Johnson, L. M. (1999). Constructing meaning via reciprocal teaching. Reading Research and Instruction, 38(3), 169-186.

Klavina, A. & Block, M. E. (2008, April). The effect of peer tutoring on interaction behaviors in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 25(2), 132-158.

Kohler, F. W., & Greenwood, C. R. (1990). Effects of collatoral peer supportive behaviors within the classwide peer tutoring program. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 307-322.

Kreuger, E., & Braun, B. (1999). Books and buddies: Peers tutoring peers. Reading Teacher, 52(4), 410-414.

Kumpulainen, K. & Kaartinen, S. (2003). The interpersonal dynamics of collaborative
reasoning in peer interactive dyads. Journal of Experimental Education, 71(4), 333-370.

Kunsch, C. A., Jitendra, A. K., & Sood, S. (2007). The effects of peer-mediated instruction in mathematics for students with learning problems: A research synthesis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22, 1–12.

Labbo, L. D., & Teale, W. H. (1990). Cross-age reading: A strategy for helping poor readers. The Reading Teacher, 43, 362-369.

Lederer, J., M. (2000). Reciprocal teaching of social studies in inclusive elementary classrooms. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(1), 91-106.

Linchevski, L., & Kutscher, B. (1998). Tell me with whom you're learning, and I'll tell you how much you've learned: Mixed-ability versus same-ability grouping in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(5), 533-554.

Mackiewicz, S. M., Wood, C. L., Cooke, N. L., & Mazzotti, V. L. (2011, August). Effects of peer tutoring with audio prompting on vocabulary acquisition for struggling readers. Remedial and Special Education, 32(4), 345-543.

Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., & Mallette, B. (2001). Peer-mediated instruction and interventions and students with mild disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 4-14.

Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (1991). Peer-mediated instruction: A review of potential applications for special education. Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, 7, 75-103.

Marious, S. E., Jr. (2000). Mix and match: The effects of cross-age tutoring on literacy. Reading Improvement, 37(3), 126-130.

Marr, M. B., Algozzine, B., Nicholson, K., & Dugan, K. K. (2011). Building oral
reading fluency with peer coaching. Remedial and Special Education, 32(3), 256-264.

Marston, D., Deno, S. L., Kim, D., Kiment, K., & Rogers, D. (1995). Comparison of reading intervention approaches for students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 62(1), 20-37.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T., Mohler, L., Beranek, M., Spencer, V., Boon, R. T., & Talbott, E. (2001). Can middle school students with serious reading difficulties help each other and learn anything? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 18-27.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Spencer, V., & Fontana, J. (2003). Promoting success in high school world history: Peer tutoring versus guided notes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(1), 52-65.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T., Norland, J. J., Berkeley, S., McDuffie, K., & Tornquist, E. H. (2006). Differentiated curriculum enhancement in inclusive middle school science: Effects on classroom and high-stakes tests. Journal of Special Education, 40, 130–137.

Mathes, P. G., & Babyak, A. E. (2001). The effects of peer-assisted literacy strategies for first-grade readers with and without additional mini-skills lessons. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 28-44.

Mathes, P. G., & Fuchs, L. S. (1994). The efficacy of peer tutoring in reading for students with mild disabilities: A best-evidence synthesis. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 59080.

Mathes, P. G., Torgesen, J. K., & Allor, J. H. (2001). The effects of peer-assisted literacy strategies for first-grade readers with and without additional computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 371-410.

Matthews, M. (1992). Gifted students talk about cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48-50.

McMahon, S. L., & Goatley, V. J. (1995). Fifth graders helping peers discuss texts in student-led groups. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(1), 23-33.

Merriman, J. E. (1999). Leadership Conference. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 22(5), 18-27.

Mesler, L. (2009). Making retention count: The power of becoming a peer tutor. Teachers College Record, 111(8), 1894-1915.

Miller, D., Topping, K. J., & Thurston A. (2010, September). Peer tutoring in reading: The effects of role and organization on two dimensions of self-esteem. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 417-433.

Mortweet, S. L., Utley, C. A., & Walker, D. (1999). Classwide peer tutoring: Teaching students with mild mental retardation in inclusive classrooms. Exceptional Children, 65(4), 524-536.

Mueller, A. & T. Fleming. (2001). Cooperative learning: Listening to how children work at school. Journal of Educational Research, 94(5), 259-265.

Mulryan, C., M. (1994). Perceptions of Intermediate students' cooperative small-group work in mathematics. Journal of Educational Research, 87(5), 280-290.

Musti-Rao, S., Hawkins, R. O., & Barkley, E. A. (2009, Fall). Effects of repeated readings on the oral reading fluency of urban fourth-grade students: Implications for practice. Preventing School Failure, 54(1), 12-23.

Myers, M. R., & Slavin, M. J. (1990). Emergence and maintenance of leadership among gifted students in group problem solving. Roeper Review, 12(4), 256-261.

Nath, L. R., & Ross, S. M. (2001). The influence of a peer-tutoring training model for implementing cooperative groupings with elementary students. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 41-56.

Neuman, S. B., & Roskos, K. (1991). Peers as literacy informants: A description of young children's literacy conversations in play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 233-248.

Nevi, C. N. (1983). Cross-age tutoring: Why does it help tutors? The Reading Teacher, 36 (May), 892-898.

Obiunu, J. J. (2008). The effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on the enhancement of career decision making process among secondary school adolescents. Educational Research and Reviews, 3(7), 236-241.

O'Connor, R. E., & Jenkins, J. R. (1996). Cooperative learning as an inclusion strategy: The experience of special education students. Exceptionality, 6, 29-52.

Oddo, M., Barnett, D. W., Hawkins, R. O., & Musti-Rao, S. (2010). Reciprocal peer tutoring and repeated reading: Increasing practicality using student groups. Psychology in the Schools, 47(8), 842-858.

Okilwa, N. S. A., & Shelby, L. (2010). The effects of peer tutoring on academic performance of students with disabilities in grades 6 through 12: A synthesis of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 31(6), 450-463.

Omari, H. A. & Whesah, H. A. (2010). Using the reciprocal teaching method by teachers at Jordanian schools. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(1), 26-39.

Palincsar, A. S., & Herrenkohl, L. R. (1999). Designing collaborative contexts: Lessons from three research programs. In A. O'Donnell & A. King (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on peer learning (pp. 151-177). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Palincsar, A. S., David, Y., Winn, J. A., & Stevens, D. D. (1991). Examining the context of strategy instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 12(3), 43-53.

Peklaj, C., & Vodopivec, B. (1999). Effects of cooperative versus individualistic learning on cognitive, affective, metacognitive and social processes in students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14(3), 359-373.

Ponzio, R., & Fisher, C. (1995). Introducing prospective teachers to contemporary views of teaching and learning science: The science and youth project. In M. J. O'Hair & S. J. Odell (Eds.), Educating Teachers for Leadership and Change, 3rd ed., pp. 257-284. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Ponzio, R. C., & Peterson, K., D. (1999). Adolescents as effective instructors of child science: Participant perceptions. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 33(1), 36-46.

Qin, Z., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995). Cooperative versus competitive efforts and problem solving. Review of Educational Research, 65(2), 129-143.

Ramsay, S. G., & Richards, H. C. (1997). Cooperative learning environments: Effects on academic attitudes of gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 41(4), 160-168.

Randall, V. (1999). Cooperative learning: Abused and overused? Gifted Child Today Magazine, 22(2), 14-16.

Rekrut, M. D. (1994). Peer and cross-age tutoring: The lessons of research. Journal of Reading, 37(5), 356-362.

Robinson, A. (1990). Cooperation or exploitation? The argument against cooperative learning for talented students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 14, 9-17.

Robinson, A. (1997). Cooperative learning for talented students: Emergent issues and implications. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education, 2nd ed., pp. 243-252. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Robinson, D. R., Schofield, J. W., & Steers-Wentzell, K. L (2005). Peer and cross-age tutoring in math: Outcomes and their design implications. Educational Psychology Review, 17(4), 327–362.

Roscoe, R. D. & Chi, M. T. H. (2007). Understanding tutor learning: Knowledge- building and knowledge-telling in peer tutors' explanations and questions. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 534-574.

Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479-530.

Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. C. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 181-221.

Ross, J. A., & Smyth, E. (1995). Differentiating cooperative learning to meet the needs of gifted learners: A case for transformational leadership. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19(1), 63-82.

Ryan, J. B., Reid, R., & Epstein, M. H. (2004). Peer-mediated intervention studies on academic achievement for student with EBD. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 330–341.

Sharpley, A. M., Irvine, J. W., & Sharpley, C. F. (1983). An examiniation of the effectivenss of a cross-age tutoring program in mathematics for elementary school children. American Educational Research Journal, 20(1), 103-111.

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Slavin, R. E. (1990a). Ability grouping, cooperative learning and the gifted. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 14, 3-8.

Slavin, R. E. (1990b). Response to Robinson: Cooperative learning and the gifted: Who benefits? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 14, 28-30.

Slavin, R. E. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 71-82.

Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on Cooperative Learning and Achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 43-69.

Spencer, V. G., Simpson, C. G., & Oatis, T. L. (2009). Peer tutoring and students with emotional and behavioural disorders. Exceptionality Education International, 19(1), 2-13.

Staub, D., & Hunt, P. (1993). The effects of social interaction training on high school peer tutors of schoolmates with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 60(1), 41-57.

Stenhoff, D. M. & Lignugaris/Kraft, B. (2007). A review of the effects of peer tutoring on students with mild disabilities in secondary settings. Exceptional Children, 74(1), 8– 30.

Stevens, R. J. & Slavin, R. E. (1995). The cooperative elementary school: Effects on students' achievement, attitudes and social relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 321-351.

Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Gunter, P. L. (2000). The effectiveness of cooperative learning with students with emotional and behavioral disorders: A literature review. Behavioral Disorders, 25(3), 225-238.

Sutherland, K. S. & Snyder, A. (2007). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and self- graphing on reading fluency and classroom behavior of middle school students with emotional or behavior disorders. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder, 15(2), 103-118.

Takala, M. (2006, November). The effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension in mainstream and special (SLI) education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(5), 559-576.

Taylor, B. M., Hanson, B. E., Justice-Swanson, K., & Watts, S. M. (1997). Helping struggling readers: Linking small-group intervention with cross-age tutoring. Reading Teacher, 51(3), 196-209.

Topping, K., & Bamford, J. (1998). Parental Involvement and Peer Tutoring in Mathematics and Science. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Topping, K. J., Peter, C., Stephen, P., & Whale, M. (2004, February). Cross-age peer tutoring of science in the primary school: Influence on scientific language and thinking. Educational Psychology, 24(1), 57-75.

Topping, K. J. & Bryce, A. (2004). Cross-age peer tutoring of reading and thinking: Influence on thinking skills. Educational Psychology, 24(5), 595-621.

Topping, K., Miller, D., Murray, P., & Conlin, N. (2011). Implementation integrity in peer tutoring of mathematics. Educational Psychology, 31(5), 575-593.

Utay, C. M., & Utay, J. M. (1997). Peer-assisted learning: the effects of cooperative learning and cross-age peer tutoring with word processing on writing skills of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 8(2-3), 165-185.

Utley, C. A., Mortweet, S. L., & Greenwood, C. R. (1997). Peer-mediated instruction and interventions. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29(5), 1-23.

Van Keer, H. & Verhaeghe, J, P. (2005). Effects of explicit reading strategies instruction and peer tutoring on second and fifth graders’ reading comprehension and self-efficacy perceptions. Journal of Experimental Education, 73(4), 291-329.

Veerkamp, M. B., Kamps, D. M., & Cooper, L. (2007). The effects of class wide peer tutoring on the reading achievement of urban middle school students. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(2), 21–51.

Webb, N. M. (1989). Peer interaction and learning in small groups. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 21-39.

Webb, N. M. (1992). Testing a theoretical model of student interaction and learning in small groups. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz & N. Miller (Eds.), Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning (pp. 102-119). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Webb, N. M. & Kenderski, C. M. (1984). Student interaction and learning in small-group and whole-class settings. In L. C. Peterson & F. Wilkinson & F. Spinelli & S. R. Swing (Eds.), The social context of instruction: Group organization and group processes (pp. 153-170). Orlando: Academic.

Webb, N. M., Nemer, K. M., & Chizhik, A. W. (1998). Equity issues in collaborative group assessment: Group composition and performance. American Educational Research Journal, 35(4), 607-651.

Webb, N. M., Troper, J., & Fall, J. R. (1995). Constructive activity and learning in collaborative small groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 406-423.

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Wing-Yi Cheng, R., Lam, S., & Chung-Yan Chan, J. (2008). When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: The roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project based learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(2), 205-221.

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